turning error compensation
Modern mechanical manufacturing technology is moving towards high efficiency, high quality, high precision, high integration and high intelligent direction. Precision and ultra precision machining technology has become the most important part of modern mechanical manufacturing and development direction, and become the key technology to improve the international competitiveness. Machining error has become a hot topic in the research of precision machining. Due to the various errors of the machine tool, the thermal error and geometric error occupy the majority, so to reduce the two errors, especially the thermal error has become the main target. Error compensation technology (ECT) appears and develops with the continuous development of science and technology. The losses caused by the thermal deformation of the machine tool are quite large. It is very necessary to develop to meet the factory actual production error of high precision and low cost thermal compensation requirement of the system to correct the spindle (or workpiece) and thermal error between the cutting tool, in order to improve the machining accuracy, reduce waste, increase production efficiency and economic benefits.
Basic definition and characteristics of error compensation
The basic definition of error compensation is artificially created a new error to offset or greatly reduced the current becomes the problem of the original error, through analysis, statistics, summary and grasp the original error characteristics and laws, establishing the error model, try to make the numerical error equal, man-made and original errors both in the opposite direction, thus to reduce machining error, improve the dimension accuracy of parts.
The earliest error compensation is realized by hardware. Hardware compensation is a mechanical fixed compensation, in the error of the machine tool to change the amount of compensation must be re produced parts, correction scale or re adjust the compensation mechanism. Hardware compensation can not solve the random error, the lack of flexibility of the shortcomings.  development of software compensation for its characteristics in the case of the machine itself does not make any changes, the integrated use of contemporary advanced technology and computer control technology to improve the machining accuracy of machine tools. Software compensation overcomes many difficulties and disadvantages of hardware compensation, and the compensation technology is pushed to a new stage.
Error compensation (Technology) has two main characteristics: Science and engineering.
The rapid development of scientific error compensation technology has greatly enriched the theory of precision mechanical design, precision measurement and the whole precision engineering, and has become an important branch of this subject. And error compensation related to the technology of detection technology, sensor technology, signal processing technology, optoelectronic technology, materials technology, computer technology and control technology, etc.. As a new branch of technology, error compensation technology has its own independent content and characteristics. Further study of error compensation technology, make it more theoretical and systematic, will have a very important scientific significance.
The error compensation technique of the engineering significance is very significant, it contains 3 meanings: one is the use of error compensation technology can more easily achieve the level of precision hard technology “to spend a great price to reach two; the error compensation technology, can solve the” level of precision hard technology “cannot achieve; the three is in certain circumstances if the accuracy of error compensation technology can greatly reduce the manufacturing cost of instruments and equipment, has very significant economic benefits.
Generation and classification of thermal error in turning
With the further improvement of the accuracy of the machine tool, the thermal error in the total error will continue to increase, the thermal deformation of the machine tool has become a major obstacle to improve the accuracy of processing. The thermal error of the machine tool is mainly caused by the thermal deformation of the machine tool parts caused by the internal and external heat sources such as motor, bearing, transmission parts, hydraulic system, environment temperature, cooling fluid and so on. The geometric errors of machine tools come from the manufacturing defects of machine tools, the coordination error between machine parts, the dynamic and static displacement of machine tool parts and so on.
Basic method of error compensation
In summary and the related references, we can know that the machining error is usually caused by the following factors:
Thermal deformation error of machine tool;
Geometric error of machine tool components and structure;
Error caused by cutting force;
Tool wear error;
Other error sources, such as the servo error of the machine tool axis, the error of the numerical control interpolation algorithm and so on.
There are two basic ways to improve the accuracy of machine tools: error prevention and error compensation method. Error prevention is an attempt to eliminate or reduce the possible source of error by design and fabrication. To a certain extent, the error prevention method is effective for reducing the temperature rise of the heat source, the equilibrium temperature field and the reduction of the thermal deformation of the machine tool. But it can not completely eliminate the thermal deformation, and the cost is very expensive, and the application of thermal error compensation method has opened up an effective and economical way to improve the accuracy of the machine tool.
Study of machining error is the most important part and the direction of development of modern machinery manufacturing, and has become a key technology to improve the ability of international competition, the error is in many aspects, analysis and Research on the thermal error is conducive to improve the machining accuracy and technical requirements.
Error compensation technology can satisfy the actual production of high precision, low cost, thermal error compensation techniques can be modified (or workpiece spindle) and cutting tool between the thermal drift error, improving the machining accuracy, reduce waste, increase production efficiency and economic benefits.
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